:include data='blog' name='all-head-content'/> What is coronavirus - Does coronavirus cause death - How do we increase the immunity of our body - Fitness Everyday 360!



What is coronavirus - Does coronavirus cause death - How do we increase the immunity of our body

What is coronavirus?

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.

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Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment.  Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illnesses.

The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is to be well informed about the COVID-19 virus, the disease it causes and how it spreads. Protect yourself and others from infection by washing your hands or using an alcohol-based rub frequently and not touching your face. 

The COVID-19 virus spreads primarily through droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes, so it’s important that you also practice respiratory etiquette (for example, by coughing into a flexed elbow).
At this time, there are no specific vaccines or treatments for COVID-19. However, there are many ongoing clinical trials evaluating potential treatments. WHO will continue to provide updated information as soon as clinical findings become available?

Does coronavirus cause death?


With more than 24,000 recorded deaths, the number of fatalities from the new coronavirus has overwhelmingly surpassed the toll of 2002-2003 SARS outbreak, which also originated in China.
SARS killed about 9 percent of those infected - nearly 800 people worldwide and more than 300 in China alone. MERS, which did not spread as widely, was more deadly, killing one-third of those infected.
While the new coronavirus is more widespread than SARS in terms of case numbers, the mortality rate remains considerably lower at approximately 3.4 percent, according to the WHO.

 Where have cases been reported?

Since March 16, more cases were registered outside mainland China than inside, marking a new milestone in the spread of the global pandemic. 
The virus has spread from China all around the world, prompting the WHO to label the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic.
Human-to-human transmissions became evident after cases were recorded with no apparent link to China.
Read about which countries have confirmed cases.
What is being done to stop it from spreading?

Scientists around the globe are racing to develop a vaccine but have warned it is not likely one will be available for mass distribution before 2021.
Meanwhile, a growing number of countries have introduced a series of sweeping measures to slow the spread of the coronavirus, including nationwide lockdowns ban on gatherings, closure of schools, restaurants, bars, and sports clubs, as well as issuing mandatory work-from-home decrees.  
International airlines have canceled flights the world over. Some countries have banned non-citizens from entering their territories, and several more have evacuated their citizens from abroad.
How do we increase the immunity of our body?
Feeding your body certain foods may help keep your immune system strong. If you're looking for ways to prevent winter colds and the flu, your first step should be a visit to your local grocery store. Plan your meals to include these 15 powerful immune system boosters.

1. Citrus fruits

Most people turn to vitamin C after they've caught a cold. That’s because it helps build up your immune system. Vitamin C is thought to increase the production of white blood cells. These are key to fighting infections.
Popular citrus fruits include:
  • grapefruit
  • oranges
  • tangerines
  • lemons
  • limes
  • clementine
Because your body doesn't produce or store it, you need daily vitamin C for continued health. Almost all citrus fruits are high in vitamin C. With such a variety to choose from, it's easy to add a squeeze of this vitamin to any meal.
2. Red bell peppers

If you think citrus fruits have the most vitamin C of any fruit or vegetable, think again. Ounce for ounce, red bell peppers contain twice as much vitamin C as citrus. They’re also a rich source of beta carotene. Besides boosting your immune system, vitamin C may help maintain healthy skin. Beta carotene helps keep your eyes and skin healthy.
 3. Broccoli

Broccoli is supercharged with vitamins and minerals. Packed with vitamins A, C, and E, as well as many other antioxidants and fiber, broccoli is one of the healthiest vegetables you can put on your table. The key to keeping its power intact is to cook it as little as possible — or better yet, not at all.
4. Garlic

Garlic is found in almost every cuisine in the world. It adds a little zing to food and it's a must-have for your health. Early civilizations recognized their value in fighting infections. According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.

Trusted Source garlic may also help lower blood pressure and slow down the hardening of the arteries. Garlic’s immune-boosting properties seem to come from a heavy concentration of sulfur-containing compounds, such as allicin.
5. Ginger

Ginger is another ingredient many turns to after getting sick. Ginger may help decrease inflammation, which can help reduce a sore throat and other inflammatory illnesses. Ginger may also help decrease nausea.
While it's used in many sweet desserts, ginger packs some heat in the form of gingerol, a relative of capsaicin. Ginger may help decrease chronic pain and may possess cholesterol-lowering properties, according to recent animal research trusted source.
6. Spinach

Spinach made our list not just because it's rich in vitamin C. It's also packed with numerous antioxidants and beta carotene, which may increase the infection-fighting ability of our immune systems. Similar to broccoli, spinach is healthiest when it’s cooked as little as possible so that it retains its nutrients. However, light cooking enhances its vitamin A and allows other nutrients to be released from oxalic acid.
7. Yogurt

Look for yogurts that have "live and active cultures" printed on the label, like Greek yogurt. These cultures may stimulate your immune system to help fight diseases. Try to get plain yogurts rather than the kinds that are preflavored and loaded with sugar. You can sweeten plain yogurt yourself with healthy fruits and a drizzle of honey instead.
Yogurt can also be a great source of vitamin D, so try to select brands fortified with vitamin D. Vitamin D helps regulate the immune system and is thought to boost our body’s natural defenses against diseases.
8. Almonds

When it comes to preventing and fighting off colds, vitamin E tends to take a backseat to vitamin C. However, vitamin E is key to a healthy immune system. It’s a fat-soluble vitamin, meaning it requires the presence of fat to be absorbed properly. Nuts, such as almonds, are packed with the vitamin and also have healthy fats. A half-cup serving, which is about 46 whole, shelled almonds, provides nearly 100 percent of the recommended daily amount of vitamin E.
9. Turmeric

You may know turmeric as a key ingredient in many curries. But this bright yellow, bitter spice has also been used for years as an anti-inflammatory in treating both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Also, research Trusted Source shows that high concentrations of curcumin, which gives turmeric its distinctive color, can help decrease exercise-induced muscle damage.
10. Green tea

Both green and black teas are packed with flavonoids, a type of antioxidant. Where green tea really excels is in its levels of epigallocatechin gallate, or EGCG, another powerful antioxidant. EGCG has been shown to enhance immune function. The fermentation process black tea goes through destroys a lot of the EGCG. Green tea, on the other hand, is steamed and not fermented, so the EGCG is preserved.
Green tea is also a good source of the amino acid L-theanine. L-theanine may aid in the production of germ-fighting compounds in your T-cells.
11. Papaya

Papaya is another fruit loaded with vitamin C. You can find 224 percent of the daily recommended amount of vitamin C in a single papaya. Papayas also have a digestive enzyme called papain that has anti-inflammatory effects.
Papayas have decent amounts of potassium, B vitamins, and folate, all of which are beneficial to your overall health.
12. Kiwi

Like papayas, kiwis are naturally full of a ton of essential nutrients, including folate, potassium, vitamin K, and vitamin C. Vitamin C boosts white blood cells to fight infection, while kiwi’s other nutrients keep the rest of your body functioning properly.
13. Poultry

When you’re sick, chicken soup is more than just a feel-good food with a placebo effect. It helps improve symptoms of a cold and also helps protect you from getting sick in the first place. Poultry, such as chicken and turkey, is high in vitamin B-6. About 3 ounces of light turkey or chicken meat contains 40 to 50 percent of your daily recommended amount of B-6.
Vitamin B-6 is an important player in many of the chemical reactions that happen in the body. It’s also vital to the formation of new and healthy red blood cells. Stock or broth made by boiling chicken bones contains gelatin, chondroitin, and other nutrients helpful for gut healing and immunity.
14. Sunflower seeds

Sunflower seeds are full of nutrients, including phosphorous, magnesium, and vitamin B-6. They’re also incredibly high in vitamin E, a powerful antioxidant.
Vitamin E is important in regulating and maintaining immune system function. Other foods with high amounts of vitamin E include avocados and dark leafy greens.
15. Shellfish

Shellfish isn’t what jumps to mind for many who are trying to boost their immune system, but some types of shellfish are packed with zinc.
Zinc doesn’t get as much attention as many other vitamins and minerals, but our bodies need it so that our immune cells can function as intended.
Varieties of shellfish that are high in zinc include:
  • crab
  • clams
  • lobster
  • mussels
Keep in mind that you don’t want to have more than the daily recommended amount of zinc in your diet. For adult men, it’s 11 milligrams (mg), and for women, it’s 8 mg. Too much zinc can actually inhibit immune system function.
More ways to prevent the flu
Variety is the key to proper nutrition. Eating just one of these foods won’t be enough to help fight off the flu, even if you eat it constantly. Pay attention to serving sizes and recommended daily intake so that you don’t get too much of a single vitamin and too little of others.
Eating right is a great start, and there are other things you can do to protect you and your family from the flu, cold, and other illnesses. Start with these flu prevention basics and then read these seven tips for flu-proofing your home. Perhaps most importantly, read up on the flu vaccine and decide whether it’s right for you.
What Is the Immune System?
The immune system is the body's defense against infections. The immune (ih-MYOON) system attacks germs and helps keep us healthy.
What Are the Parts of the Immune System?

Many cells and organs work together to protect the body. White blood cells also called leukocytes (LOO-kuh-sytes), play an important role in the immune system.

Some types of white blood cells, called phagocytes (FAH-guh-sytes), chew up invading organisms. Others, called lymphocytes (LIM-fuh-sytes), help the body remember the invaders and destroy them.

One type of phagocyte is the neutrophil (NOO-truh-fil), which fights bacteria. When someone might have a bacterial infection, doctors can order a blood test to see if it caused the body to have lots of neutrophils. Other types of phagocytes do their own jobs to make sure that the body responds to invaders.

The two kinds of lymphocytes are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Lymphocytes start out in the bone marrow and either stay there and mature into B cells or go to the thymus gland to mature into T cells. B lymphocytes are like the body's military intelligence system — they find their targets and send defenses to lock onto them. T cells are like the soldiers — they destroy the invaders that the intelligence system finds.

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How Does the Immune System Work?
When the body senses foreign substances (called antigens), the immune system works to recognize the antigens and get rid of them.
B lymphocytes are triggered to make antibodies. These specialized proteins lock onto specific antigens. The antibodies stay in a person's body. That way, if the immune system encounters that antigen again, the antibodies are ready to do their job. That's why someone who gets sick with a disease, like chickenpox, usually won't get sick from it again.
This is also how immunizations (vaccines) prevent some diseases. An immunization introduces the body to an antigen in a way that doesn't make someone sick. But it does let the body make antibodies that will protect the person from future attacks by the germ.
Although antibodies can recognize an antigen and lock onto it, they can't destroy it without help. That's the job of the T cells. They destroy antigens tagged by antibodies or cells that are infected or somehow changed. (Some T cells are actually called "killer cells.") T cells also help signal other cells (like phagocytes) to do their jobs.
Antibodies also can:
·         neutralize toxins (poisonous or damaging substances) produced by different organisms

·     activate a group of proteins called complement that is part of the immune system. Complement helps kill bacteria, viruses, or infected cells.
These specialized cells and parts of the immune system offer the body protection against disease. This protection is called immunity.
Humans have three types of immunity — innate, adaptive, and passive:
· Innate immunity: Everyone is born with innate (or natural) immunity, a type of general protection. For example, the skin acts as a barrier to block germs from entering the body. And the immune system recognizes when certain invaders are foreign and could be dangerous.

· Adaptive immunity: Adaptive (or active) immunity develops throughout our lives. We develop adaptive immunity when we're exposed to diseases or when we're immunized against them with vaccines.

·   Passive immunity: Passive immunity is "borrowed" from another source and it lasts for a short time. For example,

·  antibodies in a mother's breast milk give a baby temporary immunity to diseases the mother has been exposed to.
The immune system takes a while to develop and needs help from vaccines. By getting all your child's recommended vaccines on time, you can help keep your child as healthy as possible.

How will the coronavirus outbreak end?
The world is shutting down. Places that were once teeming with the hustle and bustle of daily life have become ghost-towns with massive restrictions put on our lives - from lockdowns and school closures to travel restrictions and bans on mass gatherings.
It is an unparalleled global response to a disease. But when will it end and when will we be able to get on with our lives?
Prime Minister Boris Johnson has said he believes the UK can "turn the tide" against the outbreak within the next 12 weeks and the country can "send coronavirus packing".
But even if the number of cases starts to fall in the next three months, then we will still be far from the end.
It can take a long time for the tide to go out - possibly years.
It is clear the current strategy of shutting down large parts of society is not sustainable in the long-term. The social and economic damage would be catastrophic.
What countries need is an "exit strategy" - a way of lifting the restrictions and getting back to normal.
But the coronavirus is not going to disappear.
If you lift the restrictions that are holding the virus back, then cases will inevitably soar.
"We do have a big problem in what the exit strategy is and how we get out of this," says Mark Woolhouse, a professor of infectious disease epidemiology at the University of Edinburgh.
"It's not just the UK, no country has an exit strategy."
It is a massive scientific and societal challenge.
How dangerous is the coronavirus?

Scientists are racing to understand the coronavirus disease, Covid-19, which is now a fast-growing global pandemic. The number of confirmed cases worldwide has exceeded 200,000 — and many epidemiologists believe the real total of infections may be close to a million because testing and reporting are so incomplete. Though Covid-19 has passed its peak in China, cases in some western countries are doubling or tripling every week. Public health experts fear the respiratory illness, which is believed to have started in a food market in Wuhan, will be at least as bad as Spanish flu in 1918-19. How dangerous is the new coronavirus? A transmission electron microscopy image of the first isolated case of the coronavirus © Courtesy of IVDC/China CDC via GISAID/Reuters Covid-19 is transmitted much more readily between humans than its closest relation, Sars, which caused outbreaks of serious disease in a few countries in 2003. 
The new coronavirus is, however, less dangerous to most people it infects than Sars. Computer modeling suggests that each new Covid-19 case infects 2.5 other people on average when no effort is made to keep people apart. The Chinese authorities have greatly reduced this “reproduction number” through drastic action to isolate cases and trace their contacts — and the rest of the world is rapidly introducing social distancing measures. The virus has caused severe respiratory disease in about 20 percent of patients and killed more than 3 percent of confirmed cases. Sars killed 10 percent of infected individuals. Older people, whose immune defenses have declined with age, as well as those with underlying health conditions, are much more vulnerable than the young. But fatality rates are hard to estimate in the early stages of an epidemic and depend on the medical care given to patients. For example, ventilators save lives by enabling people with pneumonia to breathe. Most experts believe the current fatality rate is exaggerated by serious under-diagnosis of mild cases; the best current estimate is that Covid-19 will kill around 1 percent of those infected in a population with good healthcare. For comparison, seasonal flu has a mortality rate below 0.1 percent but it infects so many people that it results in about 400,000 deaths a year worldwide. Spanish flu infected an estimated 500m people and killed 50m worldwide in 1918-19. Hypothetically, if Covid-19 affected half the world’s current population over the course of a year with a 1 percent fatality rate, the death toll would be 35m — substantially increasing the number of deaths worldwide, which is around 60m for all causes in a typical year. How does the virus spread and what is the incubation period?  The most likely way to catch Covid-19 is to be physically close to someone shedding significant amounts of the virus — which usually means a person with evident symptoms of the disease, though there is growing evidence that people carrying the infection with few or no symptoms also play an important role in transmitting the disease. Respiratory infections are most commonly spread through the air by viral particles in droplets from a cough or sneeze, though health workers and family members are also vulnerable to infection through close physical contact with patients without good barrier protection. A study by the US National Institutes of Health showed that if the droplets fall on to a surface, the active virus is detectable for up to 24 hours on cardboard and two or three days on plastic and steel. However, contaminated surfaces are not thought to be the most important transmission route. The incubation period between infection and symptoms appearing can range from two to 14 days. About five days is most common, according to the World Health Organisation. A study of hospital patients during the original Wuhan outbreak showed that they were potentially infectious for up to five weeks after the first symptoms appeared. Do masks help protect against infection? There is considerable debate among public health experts about the preventive effect of covering the face to prevent infection. © Kevin Frayer/Getty Although wearing face masks appears socially obligatory in some east Asian cities affected by a coronavirus, the WHO and many governments say healthy people do not need to wear a mask unless they are taking care of a person with suspected Covid-19 infection. The advice may be partly an attempt to stop people who don’t need them trying to buy masks, which are in short supply in many places and urgently needed by health workers. 
However, the most effective way to protect against Covid-19 is to minimize encounters with other people and if possible keep two meters away when you do meet. Clean your hands frequently, keep them away from your face and cover coughs and sneezes with the bend of your elbow or a tissue. What happens when you are infected? The virus multiplies within the lower respiratory tract, where symptoms develop. Early ones are fever and cough. Most people will recover within a few days. But about 20 percent go on to develop serious pneumonia as their lungs become inflamed; they may need a respirator to help them breathe. 
In some of the most severe cases, there can be a fatal “cytokine storm” in which the immune system goes into overdrive, overwhelming the body with cells and proteins that destroy other organs. Nurses in protective gear talk to people in the reception area of the First People's Hospital in Yueyang, Hunan Province, near the border with Hubei Province © Thomas Peter/Reuters How can doctors tell whether a patient has a coronavirus disease?  Since Chinese scientists published the genetic sequence of the virus on January 10, laboratories anywhere in the world have been able to test patient samples for its presence. They use a procedure called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify and identify viral genes. But PCR is slow and requires specialist equipment and chemicals, which are in short supply in many countries, so researchers are rushing to develop faster, cheaper and more portable tests. At the same time, scientists are carrying out a detailed analysis of the full genetic code of the virus isolated from Covid-19 patients to track mutations as the epidemic proceeds. 
Although this surveillance is showing the inevitable emergence of what some are calling different viral “strains”, Covid-19 is genetically more stable than flu, with no significant changes detected so far that might make it significantly more virulent or transmissible. The third level of testing ├Čnvolves looking for antibodies in populations exposed to Covid-19, which will show how many people were infected but developed mild or no symptoms. This “serological” testing takes longer but results are expected soon.


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